- Gravitational Force → Weakest force; but infinite range
- Weak Nuclear Force → Next Weakest; but short range
- Electromagnetic Force → Stronger; with infinite range
- Stronger Nuclear Force → Strongest; but short range
The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature are Gravitational Force, Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetic Force and Strong Nuclear Force. The Weak Nuclear force and the Strong Nuclear force are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the levels of sub-atomic particles. Gravity and Electromagnetic force have infinite range. Let's see each of them in detail.
The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths:
Gravitational Force → The Gravitational Force is weak, but having infinite range. Furthermore, it is always attractive in nature. It acts between any two pieces of matter in the Universe since mass is its source.
Weak Nuclear Force → The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay and neutrino interactions. It has a very short range and, as the name indicates, it is weak force. The Weak Nuclear force causes Beta decay, i.e., the conversion of a neutrino into a proton, an electron and an anti-neutrino.
Electromagnetic Force → The electromagnetic force causes electric and magnetic effects such as the attraction between different electrical charges or the repulsion between like electrical charges and the interaction of bar magnets. It is a long-range strong force, but comparative to Strong Nuclear Force, it is much weaker. It can be attractive or repulsive, and acts only between the pieces of matter carrying electrical charge.
Strong Nuclear Force → The Strong Nuclear force is very strong , and very short-ranged. It is responsible for holding the nuclei of atoms together. It is basically attractive, but it can be effectively repulsive in some circumstances. The Strong Nuclear force is carried by particles called "gluouns", when two particles interact through the strong nuclear force, they do so by exchanging gluouns.