1. The Northern Mountains
2. The Peninsular Plateau
4. Thar Desert
5. The Coastal Plain
6. The Island
Points to remember:
1. The Northern Mountain:
- The Himalayan Rang is the world's highest range. It may be classified into four zones:- 1. The Outer Himalayas or the Shiwaliks 2. The Lesser or Middle Himalayas (The Himachal) 3. The Greater Himalayas or the Himadri 4. The Transe-Himalayan Zone
- It extends almost uninterrupted for 2500 km. it covers 500000 km sq.
- Worlds youngest mountain range is Himalaya range.
- Its tallest peak Mt. Everest (8,848 meter) on the Nepal China Border.
- Karakoram (k2) is second highest peak in the world. Its height is 8,611 meter.
- The Siachen Glacier at 76 km and Biafo Glacier at 67 km rank as the worlds second and third longest glaciers outside the polar region
- The Vindhya range runs across most of central Asia, extending 1.050 km.
- The average elevation of these hills is 300 to 600 meters and maximum 700 meters.
- The Vindhya range separates North India from South India.
- The Deccan plateau: It is a large triangular plateau bounded by the Vindhya to the North and flanked by the Eastern and Western Ghats.
- The Daccan covers a total area of 1.9 million km square.
- Its main rivers - Godavari, Krishana, Kavari, Mahanadi.
- The Deccan is covered with thorn scrub forests scattered with small regions of deciduous broad leaf forests.
- Climate in the Deccan ranges from hot summer to mild winters.
- The Chota Nagpur Plateau: It is situated in eastern India.
- It covering much of Jharkhand and adjacent part of Oddisha, Bihar and Chattishghar.
- Total area app. 65,000 km square.
- It is made up of three smaller plateaus - The Ranchi, Hazaribagh and Kodarma plateau.
- Much of the plateau is forested, covered by the Chota Nagpur dry deciduous forests.
- Metal ores and coal have been founded in Chota Nagpur Plateau.
- The natural vegetation in most of the peninsula is xeric scrub.
- The Satpura Range: It is begins in eastern Gujarat near the Arabian sea coast and runs east across Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh an d Chattishgarh.
- It extends 900 km sq. Many peaks rising above 1000 meters.
- It is triangular in shape, with its apex at Ratnapuri and the two sides being parallel to the Tapi and Narmada river.
- The Aravali Range: It is the oldest mountain range in India, running across Rajasthan from northeast to southwest direction extending approximately 800 km.
- The highest peak in this range is Guru Shikhar at Mount Abu. Its hight is 1722 meter, laying near the border with Gujarat.
- The Western Ghat or Sahyadri Mountains: It runs along the western edge of Indian's Deccan Plateau.
- This range runs approximately 1600 km from south of the Tapi river near the Gujarat-Maharashtra border and across Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu to the southern tip of the Deccan peninsula.
- The average elevation is around 1000 meter
- Anai Mudi in the Anaimalai Hills, 2695 meters in Kerala is highest peak in the Western Ghat.
- The Eastern Ghat: The Easter Ghat are a discontinuous range of mountains, which have been eroded and vivisected by the four major rivers of the southern India- The Godawari, Mahanadi, Krishna and Kaveri.
- The mountain extend from west Bengal to Odisha, Andhra Pradesh along the coast and parallel to the Bay of Bengal.
- The Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu lies at the junction of the Eastern and Western ghats.
- Arma Konda (1680 meters) in Andhra Pradesh is the tallest peak in the Eastern Ghat.
- Indo-Gangetic Plains, also known as the Great Plains.
- The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km sq.
- Alluvial Plains dominated by three main river the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra.
- Main Tributaries - Yamuna, Chambal, Gomati, Ghaghar, Kosi, Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Tista.
- Indo-Gangatic Plain classified into four parts- Bhabar, Tarai, Banger, Khadar
- The Bhabar: The Bhabar belt is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas. Its width is between 6 to 15 kilometers. The streams flows underground.
- The Tarai : The Tarai belt lies south of the adjacent Bhabar region. It composed of newer alluvium. The underground streams reappear in this region. It receives heavy rainfall. It is populated with a variety of wildlife.
- The Banger: Consists of older alluvium and from the alluvium terrace of the flood plains.
- The Khader: It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain.
- The Thar Desert is the world's seventh largest desert.
- Total western desert area is 200,000 to 238700 km sq.
- Most of the Thar desert is situated in Rajasthan, covering 61% of its geographic area.
- Only 10% of this region comprises sand dunes, and the remaining 90% consist of craggy rock form.
- Annual temperature can range from 0°C in the winter to over 50°C in summer.
- In western India, The Kutch region in Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtra are classified as a Zone IV region (High risk) for earthquakes.
- The Eastern Coastal Plain: It is a wide stretch of land lying between the Eastern Ghats and the oceanic boundary of India.
- The temperature in the coastal regions often exceeds 30° and is coupled with high levels of humidity.
- The region receives both the northeast monsoon and southwest monsoon rains.
- The southwest monsoon splits into two branches, the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea branch.
- Annual rainfall in this region between 1000 - 3000 mm.
- The width of the plains varies between 100 km to 130 km.
- Plains are divided into six regions:- The Mahanadi Delta, the Southern Andhra Pradesh Plain, the Krishna Godawari Delta, the Kanyakumari coast, the Coromandel Coast and the Sandy coastal.
- The Western Coastal Plain: The width of this plain 50 to 100 km.
- It extends from Gujarat in the North and through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala.
- The Western Coastal Plain can be divided into two parts- The Konkan and the Malabar Coast.
- Major river flowing into the sea are - Tapi, Narmada, Mandovi and Zuari.
- Lakshadweep: Its lie 200 to 300 km of the coast of Kerala in the Arabian sea with an area of 32 km sq. They consists of twelve atolls, three reefs and five submerged banks, with a total of about 35 Island and Islets.
- The Andaman and Nicobar: It is located between 6° and 14° north latitude and 92° and 94° east longitude. They consists of 572 isles. It consists of 204 small island across a total length of 352 km. India's only active Volcano, Barren Island is situated here. It last erupted in 2017. Salsette Island is India's most populous island on which the city of Mumbai is located.