Here we are providing our reader the basic knowledge of Haryana for upcoming HSSC Exams.
It is also available in PDF format.
- Capital : Chandigarh
- Area : 44,212 sq km
- Area Rank : 21st
- Population(2016) : 2,77,61,063
- Population Rank : 18th
- Most Populous City : Faridabad
- Density : 573/km2
- Density Rank : 11
- No. of Districts : 22
- Largest District : Bhiwani
- Smallest District : Panchkula
- Legislature : Unicameral
- Assembly Seats : 90
- Lok Sabha Seats : 10
- Rajya Sabha Seats : 5
- Official Language : Hindi
- Additional Official Language : Punjabi
- Most Spoken : Haryanvi (Dialect)
- State Day : November 1
- Date of Formation : November 1, 1966
- Jurisdiction of Punjab and Haryana High Court
- Governor : Kaptan Singh Solanki
- Chief Minister : Manohar Lal Khattar
- Chief Justice : Shiavax Jal Vazifdar
- State Animal : Black buck
- State Bird : Black francolin
- State Flower : Lotus
- State Tree : Peepal
- Haryana is the first state in India to Electrify all its villages by Nov 1970.
Formation: Haryana, earlier a part of the Punjab province, was formed on November 1, 1966 by combining Hindi-speaking areas of the state of Punjab (India) under the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. The city of Chandigarh was made a union territory, serving as the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma became the first Chief Minister of Haryana.
History: Haryana is identified as the home of the ‘Bharata’dynasty from which the name ‘Bharat’ has been derived for India. The earliest reference to 'Hariana' occurs in a Sanskrit inscription dated 1328 AD kept in Delhi Museum, which refers to this region as the heaven on earth, indicating that it was fertile and relatively peaceful at that time. Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354 to further fortify the region, and also constructed canals or rajwahas as they were referred to in the Indo-Persian historical texts.
Agriculture: Haryana is primarily an agricultural state. About 70% of residents are engaged in agriculture. Haryana is at Second position in food grain production in the country. Wheat and rice are the major crops. Haryana is self-sufficient in food production and the second largest contributor to India's central pool of food grains. The main crops of Haryana are Wheat, Rice, Sugarcane, Cotton, Oilseeds, Gram Barley, Corn, Millet etc. There are two main types of crops in Haryana: Rabi and Kharif. The major Kharif crops of Haryana are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, jute, sugarcane, sesame and groundnut. The major Rabi crops are Wheat, tobacco, gram, linseed, rapeseed and mustard. About 86% of the area is arable, and of that 96% is cultivated. About 75% of the area is irrigated, through tubewells and an extensive system of canals. The state has also significantly contributed to the field of agricultural education in the country. Asia's biggest agricultural University - Chaudhry Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University is located at Hisar, which has already made a significant contribution in ushering 'Green Revolution'.
Dairy farming is also an essential part of the rural economy. The National Dairy Research Institute at Karnal, and the Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar are instrumental in development of new breeds of cattle and propagation of these breeds through embryo transfer technology. The Murrah breed of buffalo from Haryana is world-famous for its milk production.
Manufacturing: Faridabad is one of the biggest industrial city of Haryana as well as North India.
Bahadurgarh is an important developing industrial town with glass, steel, tiles manufacturing and biscuits production.
Rohtak has the largest wholesale cloth market of Asia, known as shori market.
Panipat has heavy industry, including a refinery operated by the Indian Oil Corporation.
- Charkhi Dadri (established Nov 16, 2016)
- Yamuna Nagar