Types of figure of speech are following:
Simile: It is an indirect comparison made between two different entities showing some common aspect or relation. The comparison is usually formed with “like” or “as”.
Life is just like an ice-cream, enjoy it before it melts.
As ambitious as the devil.
Metaphor: The direct comparison of two cutities where one entity is expressed as the other. In other words, an implied comparison between two unlike things that actually have something in common.
It does not, like a Simile, state that one thing is like another or acts as another, but takes that for granted and proceeds as if two things were one.
Thus when we say, ‘He fought as fiercely as a lion’, it is Simile.
But when we say, ‘He was a lion in the fight’, it is Metaphor.
Example: The camel is the ship of the desert.
Personification: In Personification, inanimate objects and abstract notions are spoken of as having life and intelligence.
Example: Laughter is holding her both sides.
Apostrophe: An Apostrophe is a direct address to the dead, to the absent, or to a personified object or idea. This figure is a special form of Personification.
Example: Death! Where is thy sting? O Grave! Where is thy victory?
Hyperbole: It is an exaggeration, used after to ridicule, create humour or any drastic emotional appeal. The use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of ramphasis of heightned effect.
Example: Why, man, if the river is dry, I am able to fill it with tears.
Alliteration: A literacy stylistic device, where a series of words in a row have the same first consonant sound.
Example: She sells sea shells at the sea shore.
Elegy: An Elegy is a sad and thoughtful poem expressing death of a person.
Example: "Here lies a king that ruled as he thought fit. The...."
Ode: An ode is typically a lyrical verse written in praise of or dedicated to someone or something which captures the poet's interest or serves as inspiration for the ode.
Example: "Far flower of fifteen spring..... that you are cruel and unkind."
Pun: When a word or phrase is used in two(or more) different senses.
Example: Whoever hath her wish, thou hast thy Will,
And Will to boot, and Will in overplus;
See the use of odd grammar rule, which is the capitalization of word “Will.” Usually in the middle of a line or sentence, writers capitalize a name. Here it is the first name of Shakespeare. It means he has created pun of his own name.
Sonnet: A verse from Italian Origin consisting of 14 lines in iambic parameter with rhymes arranged according to a fixed schedule, usually divided either in two octave or sextet or, in the English form, into three quatrain and a couplet.
Example: "Weary with toil.....
For thee and for myself no quiet find"
Personification: It occurs when a writer gives human traits to non-human or inanimate objects. It is similar to metaphors and similes that also use comparison between two objects.
Example: “Hadn’t she felt it in every touch of the sunshine, as its golden finger-tips pressed her lids open and wound their way through her hair?”
In the above lines, the speaker is personifying sunshine as it has finger tips that wound their way into her hair. This is trait of using finger-tips in hair is a human one.
Irony: Use of word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning.
Example: “Go ask his name: if he be married.
My grave is like to be my wedding bed.”
Juliet commands her nurse to find out who Romeo was and says if he were married, then her wedding bed would be her grave. It is a verbal irony because the audience knows that she is going to die on her wedding bed.