Energy is a very common word frequently used in our day-to-day life. The universe is made up of matter and energy. In physics, energy is the ability to do work, or the ability to move or elicit change in matter.
In other words, energy measures the capability of an object or system to do work on another object or system.
We require energy for all types of activities including the activities within our body, with our body, or with other bodies. When we say a body has energy, it means it is capable of doing doing work.
- Kinetic Energy is motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and objects.
- Potential Energy is stored energy and the energy of gravitational position of objects.
- Electrical Energy is the movement of electrical charges. Everything is made of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are made of even smaller particles called electrons, protons and neutrons. Applying a force can make some of the electrons move. Electrical charges moving through a wire is called electricity. Lightening is another example of electrical energy.
- Radiant Energy is electromagnetic energy that travels in transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, X-rays, gamma-rays and radio waves. Light is one type of Radiant energy. Solar energy is an example of radiant energy.
- Thermal Energy, or heat, is the internal energy in substances - the vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules within substances. Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy.
- Motion Energy is the movement of objects and substances from one place to another. Objects and substances move when a force is applied according to Newton's Laws of Motion. Wind is an example of motion energy.
- Chemical Energy is energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules. It is the energy that holds these particles together. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas and propane are examples of stored chemical energy.
- Nuclear Energy is energy stored in the nucleus of an atom, the energy that holds the nucleus together. The energy can be released when the nuclei are combined or split apart. Nuclear power plants split the nuclei of Uranium atoms in a process called Fission. The Sun combines the nuclei of Hydrogen atoms in a process called Fusion.
The kinetic energy of a moving body depends on
- Its mass
- Its velocity