Important points of Harappan/Indus Civilization :
The Harappa Civilisation, named after Harappa- the first discovered site.
The Harappa Civilisation is also known as the Indus valley Civilisation , because the largest concentration of settlement-along the Indus river.
Alexander Cunningham – He was the first Director-General of ASI. He Began excavations around mid nineteenth century.
John Marshall – He was the DG of ASI in 1927 and first professional Archaeologist of India. But he excated horizontlly and all finds were grouped together even when they were found at different stratigraphic layers. This caused loss of very valuable information regarding.
R.E.M. Wheeler – He followed the stratigraphy of excavations rather than just excavating horizontally.
The most accepted period - 2500 BC - 1750 BC.
Majority of the sites developed on the banks of river Indus, Ghaggar and its tributaries.
It was spread over Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western U.P. and Northern Maharashtra.
After independence, the state of Gujarat has accounted for the largest number of sites.
Rojadi, Desalpur and Surkotada are the three Harappan sites which have yielded three stages of Harappan civilisation – pri-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan.
The Indus Valley civilization is the first known Urban Culture in India.
This civilisation is credited for building cities complete with : town planning, sanitation, drainage system and broad well-laid roads.
They also built double storied houses of burnt-bricks complete with bathroom , kitchen, and a well.
Their Walled cities had important buildings such as, the Great Bath, Granaries and the Assembly Halls.
Here, Lothal deserves special mention as the site for dockyard. It is situated in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
Lothal was a well planned walled city which was an important centre of sea trade with the western world.
Mohenjodaro-the largest site of Indus Civilisation.
Dholavira- the largest Indian site of Indus Civilisation.
Capital cities – Harappa, Mohenjodaro.
Port cities – Lothal, Sutkagendor, Allahdino, Balakot, Kuntasi.
Bronze was the most widely used metal in the Harappan civilisation. Iron was not known to the people.
Needle, razors, sickles, plough, forks and spoons were among the important tools and implements used by Harappan people. Stone, copper and bronze were used in making Harappan weapons.
Harappans were the first people to cultivate cotton. They knew the art of spinning & weaving.
Harappan agricultural economy was mainly based on wheat and associated winter crop.
There is the evidence of pictographic script, found mainly on seals. The script has not been deciphered so far, but overlap of latters on some of the posts herds from Kalibanga show that writing was boustrophedon or from right to left and from left to right in alternate lines. It has been referred to as Proto-Dravidian.
Their Seals were engraved with animal figures (e.g. humped bull, elephant and rhinoceros). This suggests that these animals were considered sacred.
Harappan seals were manufactured by the process of cutting.
Harappan seals were used for both religious and commercial purpose.
The image of ‘Peepal’ tree is found depicted on many seals.
Harappans used to worship plants, animals and the forces of nature.
They also worshipped male god resembling Lord Shiva of later times and a mother goddess.
They also probably believed in life after death and also in charms and spells.
The origin of the ‘Swastika’ symbol can be traced to the Indus Civilisation.